Plagiarism -- the use of other peoples words or ideas without giving proper credit -- is only one part of the general problem of cheating. Anecdotal evidence as well as a few studies suggest that student cheating is much more widespread than usually recognised. (Although exams are thought to prevent cheating more than essays, actually the rate of cheating on exams may be higher than for any other assessment mode.)
Most cheating is undetected. For every student caught plagiarising, it is almost certain that many more plagiarisers escape detection.
Elimination of plagiarism by detection and penalties is labour-intensive and ultimately impossible. One article recommends that, to detect plagiarism, each essay be read four times. But this only picks up copying from published sources; copying from other essays, or false authorship of essays, is seldom detectable or provable.
More importantly, the policing approach to plagiarism is educationally counterproductive. Students should be encouraged to model themselves on the best thinkers and, at the same time, to think critically and originally. This is hardly possible if they are constantly being scrutinised for intentional or inadvertent plagiarism.
The proposals here are aimed not to stamp out plagiarism but rather to create the sort of educational environment where it is rare because both students and staff expect the highest standards in each other. The aim should be to develop a culture of respect for quality work.
There needs to be much more explicit discussion of what is meant by plagiarism and what is appropriate acknowledgement in particular circumstances. This includes detailed examples in subject notes, discussion in lectures and articles in student newspapers.
Most students do treat plagiarism seriously. According to one study, the major issues so far as students are concerned are "fairness to authors and other students, the responsibility of students to do independent work, and respect for ownership rights."
What is considered appropriate acknowledgement depends on the subject and circumstance. Adding footnotes to a musical score is not a common practice! Departments and, in some cases, even individual lecturers may need to develop their own guidelines.
Staff and students must recognise that the academic culture, with its acknowledgement of authorship, is at variance with many other parts of society. Unacknowledged copying is tolerated by some school teachers. Misrepresentation of authorship is standard practice among politicians, business executives and public sector administrators, who seldom give appropriate credit to their speechwriters and junior staff.
In many subjects, plagiarism can be minimised by appropriate design of essay questions, or student assessment generally. For example, essay questions can be posed which require the student to refer to recent newspaper or magazine articles, draw on personal experiences, or make connections between theory and example not found in the literature. This prompts students to do their own work without any specific concern about plagiarism. By contrast, offering long lists of possible essay topics, little changed from year to year, is a prescription for copying from published sources and/or past essays.
Acknowledgement of collaboration
In some subjects, students commonly work together on assignments, and this may be a valuable part of the educational process. If this is the case, it is better to encourage students to acknowledge their collaboration, for example by providing for group submissions accompanied by signed statements allocating credit for work done.
Acknowledgement by staff
Academics can provide a good example for students by giving appropriate credit for ideas in their lectures and subject notes. When academics are more explicit about the source for examples, problems or approaches, this also helps students gain a better appreciation of the position of their teachers in the development and communication of knowledge.
Many universities have an honour code by which students undertake both to not cheat and to report cheating by other students -- and in some universities the code is widely respected and observed. At many universities, such a culture of honesty would be difficult to introduce in the short term. Nevertheless, it remains a worthy goal, and may be possible to introduce within individual departments or faculties.
Learning by resubmission
Most students who plagiarise from published sources do not understand that it is wrong. (On the other hand, most students realise that having another student write ones essay is wrong.) When lecturers subtract marks or fail an essay because of plagiarism, the student is penalised but may not learn how to do it correctly.
An alternative approach is to allow, in some circumstances, resubmission without penalty. Under this approach, submissions containing plagiarism can be resubmitted with the only changes being appropriate quotation marks, footnotes, etc. The revised submission would then be marked by the original standard. In this way, the student gains experience in giving proper acknowledgements. (Of course, a piece of work that is entirely plagiarised would, on resubmission, be entirely made up of quotes, and would receive little credit!)
A number of overseas universities have discipline committees to deal with student cheating that include significant numbers of students. In fact, it is commonly found that the student committee members are much tougher on cheaters than staff, possibly because the students have a better feel for what is going on and for the resentment felt by honest students. In any case, judgement by peers gives greater credibility to the discipline process. Also, commitment to honesty and fairness is given a much higher profile in the student community via the personal influence of the students selected for the discipline committee.
All disciplinary procedures must be respectful of the rights of those accused of plagiarism. The legal ramifications of dealing with plagiarism are forbidding, a fact which only serves to emphasise the superiority of prevention and a culture of honesty over an approach based on detection and punishment.
Universities, faculties and perhaps departments need to have clear, well-publicised policies on plagiarism. These policies need to do more than say "do not plagiarise." They need to explain what plagiarism means in practice with examples of correct and incorrect citations.
A sense of proportion
Plagiarism is often treated like a mortal sin: assumed to happen only rarely and warranting the most extreme penalties when discovered. The reality is different: plagiarism in mild forms is quite common. Plagiarism needs to be understood as a straightforward issue of learning how to give acknowledgements in the fashion expected in a scholarly environment. The main focus should be on learning, not penalties for transgressors.
Starting university is like starting a new life. When students leave home for university, they embark on a new journey, one that of self-reliance and self-discovery, which largely shapes up their outlook on life in the longer run.
Most students are not prepared for the challenges of university and end up being overwhelmed, which results in them taking extra time to adjust to their new life. That is fine, as long as you eventually get comfortable with university life, but a far better course of action would be to prepare yourself, mentally and emotionally, for any problem you may face at college and university level.
Here are a few issues you should be ready to deal with as a university student.
1. Adjustment to New Life
Whether you are a student experiencing the campus environment for the first time or going back to the campus life after spending the vacation at home, there will be a period of adjustment, more so in the first scenario.
The first year of university is always extra hard when it comes to adjustment to university life so you should be expecting to at least get a culture shock because of how different things would be compared to home or school. Additionally, it is important to not get in a frenzy over getting everything right. Give yourself some time, and expect to get a little bamboozled, but always stay confident that eventually you will come to love the university life.
Since it is the first time being away from home for most students, homesickness can strike very hard. However, thanks to the modern means of communication, most students feeling homesick can stay connected with their parents, family members and friends over the internet.
3. Pressure of Studies
Most students are paying their education expenses themselves so the pressure on them to get good grades is immense. Even if it is not them paying, there are still massive social and educational repercussions of not succeeding in the studies. Students should expect the studies to be much harder than before, and at the same time, should focus more on learning rather than getting a good GPA.
4. Cost of Education
Ever since the most recent increase in the cost of higher education in the UK, the number of students seeking professional counseling has significantly increased. Mental health issues are surfacing more than ever in students according to a survey by the National Students Union (NUS).
You should realize that the only way you can avoid mental anxiety and make the expenses worth is when you enjoy your time in the university, focus on your studies and keep a nice balance between the two.
5. Finding New Friends
It is difficult to make friends at a new place, but don’t make the mistake of thinking that you will have to fit in with people who have different interests in order to make new friends at university. You can be yourself and find friends at the same time, you just have to be patient and involve yourself in activities that you like.
6. Housing Problems
You may get a place in the hostel or dorm, but it is really difficult to find student accommodation that is right for you. You have to consider factors such as distance, rent rates, facilities, roommates etc. Students face housing problems all the time so if you can, have a place ready before you leave home. Student accommodation is a big issue in UK and you would do well to have a solution prepared.
7. Time Management
From trying to study to living alone and doing the required chores, to maintaining a social life, to possibly working some sort of a job to help with expenses, students don’t have the “time” to manage and think about their time. They sleep in irregular patterns and do everything at the last minute.
This kind of behavior is unsustainable and therefore, you need to at least set a rough timetable and start utilizing your time much more efficiently. You will be surprised at the amount of free time you’ll start to have on your hands.
By Hannah Carter – Having a nice and memorable university life is everyone’s right, so if you are facing any problems in regards to student residence and want to find student accommodation, visit our website http://padsforstudents.co.uk/.